• Back pale, masked and masked old type, three allelic versions

    Male dos pale gris

    Explanations and couplings

    Why, these three mutations combined are so difficult to predict ?

    Simply because we can not speak at the genetic level of different mutations but rather allelic versions of a single gene. The pale back, the masked and the old type mask (OT) are due to the same gene but which has three allelic versions. You can find the phenotype of each one in photo in this article : Illustrated glossary of mutations in zebrafinch.

    In order to understand well, let us make the parallel with the man, the color of the eyes for example, whatever the color of our eyes, our color of the iris and coded by the same gene, but this discomfort has many different versions (alleles) that allow us to have the color panel that we know.

    Now that we know a little more, let's see how each allele behaves in relation to each other.

    A small table to illustrate all this :

    Allèle \ allèle Back pâle Masked Masked OT*
    Back pâle X Dos pâle Back pâle
    Masked Back pâle X Masked
    Masked OT* Back pâle Masked X

    * OT = old type

    In this double-entry chart you can see that it allele dominates the other, so the bird will have the phenotype of the allele that dominates. Be careful, it's not because the allele is dominated that it does not influence. See also the pale back / OT mask : The back is more diluted because of the masked OT allele.

    From this result we can draw the first conclusions :

    - The pale back may be masked or mask OT.
    - The masked can be masked OT but can not be bearer of pale back (pale back dominates the masked).
    - The masked OT can not be bearer of pale back, nor masked because these last two dominate it.

    Femelle masque gris ancien type anglaise 2016
    Female masked gray old type

    To know :

    - Each bird has two chromosomes so it has twice the same gene (but not necessarily the same allele).
    - The pale back, the masked and the masked OT are mutations linked to the sex, they are thus carried by the sex chromosomes. In birds, the male has twice the same sex chromosome (ZZ) and the female has two different sex chromosomes, one of which bears the genes linked to the phenotype (ZW, the W carries the genes related to the phenotype).
    Now let's detail each possible coupling. Let's start with the pale back and the masked below.

    Male pale back X masked female

    Female\Male ZBp* ZBp
    W ZBpW ZBpW

    *Bp = Back pâle; *M = masked



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  • Genetics of the zebra finch : Instructions for use

    1. Introduction

    The raising and presentation of zebra finch has grown considerably over the past fifteen years. To improve the size of the new mutations, breeders have also resorted to the classic "carrier" birds.
    Some manage to combine several mutations. All this made it essential to know a minimum of applied genetics. This is the minimum that I would like to introduce to new breeders.
    It is not a complete course of genetics, but the simple presentation of the method I use preceded by some basic concepts.

    2. The zebra finch and its mutations

    A zebra finch has a number of visible characters (size, shape, pattern, color, sex) that make up its phenotype. It may have, in addition to other characters not expressed (it is said that it is a carrier). The whole of the characters, expressed or not, is called the genotype.

    A young zebra finch comes from an egg cell, the result of the fusion of the nucleus of a spermatozoon of the father and the nucleus of the ovum of the female. The genetic program of the bird is already there: A sequence of cell divisions and coded information will trigger (or not) the appearance of the characters. The coded information is carried by genes located on long filaments contained in the nucleus: Chromosomes.
    All chromosomes go in pairs: each chromosome has its counterpart.

    There are two categories of chromosomes :

    - The sex chromosomes:
    • XX in the male
    • XY in the female

    - The chromosomes autosomes.

    The gray zebra finch living in Australia is the origin of all our zebra-reared finch. It has a whole set of genes distributed in its chromosomes.
    Whenever a new mutation has appeared, it is because there has been a modification of a gene of origin (and that it has proved to be hereditary). The gene of origin and the mutated gene are located at the same location called locus on each of the homologous chromosomes.
    Both genes are alleles.

    Genetique du diamant mandarin 1

    A bird is pure (homozygous) when all its alleles carry identical information.
    A bird is heterozygous when at least one pair of alleles carries different information about the same trait.

    There are currently about twenty different mutations of gray zebra finch.

    We distinguish :

    a) The dominant mutations

    Pastel, crested, cheeks (gray, brown), black face (black-face), cheeks clear.
    A mutation is dominant when it is expressed while the mutated gene exists in only one copy. This gene is located on an autosome chromosome.
    There are therefore no zebra finch carrying these mutations.
    Note: When the two homologous chromosomes each carry a dominant gene, the young is not viable. This is called a lethal factor.

    b) Recessive mutations

    White, variegated, saddled, white breast, black breast, orange breast, black cheeks, isabelle, agate, yellow beak, eumo.
    A mutation is recessive when it is expressed only if the two autosome chromosomes each have the mutated gene.
    If there is only one mutated gene, the character is not expressed. The bird is simply "carrier" of the mutation.

    c) Gender mutations

    Brown, pale back, masked old type, masked new type.
    A mutation is linked to sex when the genes responsible for this mutation are located on the X chromosome (s) of the bird (the Y chromosome of the female being empty of genes).

    The mutation is expressed in females since they receive from their father the mutated X chromosome. For it to be expressed in males, the mutated gene must be carried by each of the two X chromosomes. Otherwise, the male is only the carrier of the mutation; however, he can pass it on to half of his daughters.
    Notes: The "Light Back" and "Masked" genes are alleles of the same non-mutated gene. A Gray male may carry Pale Back and Masked.

    Genetique du diamant mandarin 2

    A pale-backed male can be a masked bearer, but not the other way around. In this case, even in a single copy, it is he who expresses himself.
    The same factor (Pale Back) can be recessive compared to Gray, but dominant over Masked.
    The gene "Brown" also located on an X chromosome does not have the same locus as the previous genes.

    Genetique du diamant mandarin 3

    Anterior to the other two, it is on a different chromosome.
    For these genes to be linked (Pale Brown Back, Brown Masked), it took the appearance of a phenomenon that is the subject of another article: Crossing-over.

    d) Combined mutations

    Many mutations as well as gray can be combined with each other. One can theoretically associate a lot but in practice, it is better to remain cautious: In addition to the many necessary crossings, it is necessary that the bird obtained remains typed and corresponds to the criteria of the standards.

    The most famous are :

    • Brown pastel
    • Gray or Brown cheeks
    • Isabelle Black Chest

    Black Brown Black Breast or Brown White Brown Pastel combine, for example, a sex-linked mutation, a dominant free mutation and a free recessive mutation.
    It is therefore necessary to know how to choose the best crossings to achieve this.

    3. Crossing technique

     a) Assign each mutation a symbol

    We begin by assigning each mutation a symbol: By analogy with the atomic symbols, we can choose one or two letters of the name of the mutation.
    The dominant mutations are in upper case, the others in lower case.

    Personally, I use the following symbols (From French abbreviations of mutations) :

      Fn: Black face
      bj: Yellow beak
      bl: White
      po: Orange Breast
      br: Brown
      Pl: Pastel
      pa: variegated
      pb: white chest
      pn: black breast
      J: Cheeks (Gray or Brown)
      jn: Black cheeks
      ag: Agate
      dp: Pale Back
      ma: Masked Old type
      mn: Hidden new type
      eu: Eumo
      se: Sellé

    Scientists have a + sign followed by the symbol of the unmutated gene.
    Example: H (Huppe); H + (not Crested); pb (White breast); pb + (no white breast).

    Personally, I find it more logical to write: H + (Huppé); H- (not Crested); pb + (White breast); pb- (no white breast).
    In the end, the results will be the same.

    b) Write the genetic formula of each bird

    On either side of a fraction bar, symbols of the genes carried by each homologous chromosome are transferred, starting with the sex chromosomes.

    c) Sex chromosomes

    Gray male: XN / XN; Gray female XN / Y
    In this case, N means Normal

    d) Gender mutation

    Brown male: Xbr + / Xbr +; Brown female: Xbr + / Y
    Same formulas with dp +, my +, mn +.

    e) dominant free mutation

    Male pastel gray: XN / XN PL + / pl-; Gray pastel female: XN / Y pl- / PL +
    Same formulas with H +, BF +, J +.
    Non-mutated recessive factors are written in lower case.

    f) Free recessive mutation

    Black-chest male XN / XN pn + / pn +; Black breasted gray female XN / Y pn + / pn +
    Same formulas with pb +, po +, jn +, pa +, se +, is +, and so on.

    g) Combined mutations

    Brown male black face black cheeks: XN br + / XN br + Fn + / fn- jn + / jn +
    Male pastel pale yellow pastel: XN dp + / XN dp + Pl + / pl- bj + / bj +

    h) Carriers

    Gray male / (/ means carrier) Pale back: XN dp + / XN dp-
    Female Brown / Black cheeks: XN br + / Y jn + / jn-
    Gray female black face / black breast: XN / Y Fn + / fn- pn + / pn-
    Gray male black face / black breast: XN / Y Fn + / fn- pn + / pn-
    Male pale back gray / Masked NT (new type): Xdp + / Xmn +. In this case, one could write DP +, since the Pale Back dominates its allele, the NT Mask.

    4. Place these formulas in a cross table

    We must first remember:

    • That each parent transmits to his or her young only one of the two chromosomes of each pair.
    • That the grouping in each gamete (spermatozoon or ovum) of these chromosomes is by chance: it is the genetic mixing.

    The more the parent has mutated genes on different chromosomes, the more combinations will be possible. This is the only difficulty in this method, but it is inevitable.

    Let's start with a simple crossover :

    a) Brown male: (XN br + / XN br +) X Female gray XN br- / Y

      XN br+ XN br+
    XN br- XN br+/XN br- XN br+/XN br-
    Y XN br+/Y XN br+/Y

    Each chromosome of the male (in this case, the sex chromosomes) finds its homologous chromosome provided by the female. It only remains to translate each formula.

    Results : XN br + / XN br- Male gray / brown (50%); XN br + / Y Brown female (50%)

    b) Male gray / brown: (XN br + / XN br-) X Brown female: XNbr + / Y

      XN br+ XN br-
    XN br+ XN br+/XN br+ XN br-/XN br+
    Y XN br+/Y XN br+/Y

    Results : XN br + / XN br + Brown male (25%); XN br- / XN br + (25%); XN br + / Y Brown female (25%); XN br- / Y Gray female (25%).

    Once the method is acquired, it is possible to find the result of any cross. It takes time, logic and patience (or a computer).

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  • Genetic simulation software

    Zebra Finches Genetic software that will allow you to make mating simulations.
    Very practical and easy to use, French version. It will give you a percentage result.

    Download the software here:

    Genetic simulation software

    1. Take "Download in .Zip".
    2. Once the uncompressed folder double click on the file: "ZGF_FR.exe" to open the software.

    Overview :

    Logiciel simulation genetique

    To take into account: In the menu of the software> help> note, it is written that the software is not perfect :

    Zebra genetic

    By doing the test when we put for example a gray male black face X a gray female actually it says: "100.0% >> Gray, Black Face, this result is wrong, the result in percentage should be 50% no black face (not mutated) 50% black face (mutated).

    In any case for me I consider this software as a help to quickly visualize a coupling.
    It does not replace the knowledge of the basics of genetics. Nothing like a good old little table scribbled on a piece of paper.

    NB: In some cases, it is possible that when running the software an error message from Windows is displayed: "comdlg32.ocx file missing." You will need to download this missing file to Windows. By doing a search as such: "comdlg32.ocx", you will find how to solve this problem that is not due to the genetic simulation software.

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  • Illustrated glossary of mutations in zebrafinch

    I made this glossary to illustrate in photos the mutations existing in the zebrafinch.
    He can help you identify the mutation (s) of your zebrafinch.

    Important clarification : To identify the genotype of your zebrafinch, it must be taken into account that a zebrafinch can carry a mutation without being mutant. Being a carrier (/) of a mutation means that it is partially present (genetically speaking). from a visual point of view the partially carried mutation will not be seen or only by some clues present in the appearance of the bird.
    It will be necessary in this case, to have an eye informed to determine the genotype. Sometimes docking couplings will be required.
    Your zebrafinch can also have several mutations, the possible combinations are numerous.

    This glossary is based solely on the phenotype (visual characters) and simple mutations (not combined).

    Gray (GR)

    The gray zebrafinch is not a mutation, it is the original type (wild).

    Gris male 1 Gris femelle 1

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