Articles

  • Tip : How to keep the eggs gathered in the nest

    Nid plastique

    If you also use this type of nest this tip can serve you.

    Last year, a male regularly messed up the materials of his nest or the abductees. In order to certainly start another brood.
    The bottom of these nests being flat, the eggs were scattered and therefore a risk of not being brooded was very possible.

    So I looked for a solution to avoid this inconvenience. By trying several type of concave nest bottom, among others those in rope and coir, incorporating them into the plastic nest. This male continued despite all to want to remove these funds !

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  • How to recognize a male carrying the black breast mutation

    The purpose of this article is not to establish an unstoppable rule for the recognition of a gray male carrying the black breast mutation. Rather, it aims to gather clues that can help you identify it.
    For this, each point of detail of the mutation is resumed, as I observed during the selection of my black chestnut strain.

    Before starting to analyze each possible clue, it seems important to me to bear in mind that the black breast mutation modifies the shape of the drawings. To identify a carrier of the black breast mutation, I also advise you to take into account all the clues described in this article.

    Let's proceed and analyze the phenotype of a gray, black-breasted head to the rectrices compared to a gray carrying the black breast mutation. To identify each descriptive terms used, you can use this diagram : Descriptive terms in zebrafinch.

    1. Mustachial trait

    Black breast (pn) : The moustachial line will be pronounced and intense black.
    Black chest carrier (/ pn) : The moustachial line may be more pronounced than on a gray, however this does not constitute for me a sufficient index.

    2. Tear Trait

    Black chest (pn) : The line of tear disappears (ideally following the standard) or only a fine line remains.

    1 trait de larme pn 1

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  • Weaning of young zebra finch

    Le sevrage des jeunes diamants mandarins 1

    The young zebra finch are now about three weeks old; seeking to escape the lack of space, the oppressive warmth of the brood or just want to discover the world, they will start to come out of the nest.
    This exit is not final, because they return there again for 2 to 3 days, but less and less often. Sometimes, when the young start to grow, one of them starts to fly out of the nest a few days before the planned release date, you can leave it out of the nest if conditions permit, the parents will continue to to occupy it. If you need to put it back in the nest, place it softly preferably in the evening and keep your hand in front of the flight hole, until all the young people have found their calm.
    One morning when all the young people are out, the nest will be removed for cleaning before a new laying or in preparation for the next breeding season. The nest will be given when young people are weaned and therefore separated from their parents.

    It is common for parents to start again before the end of weaning. There are no established rules on the issue: Sometimes parents start brooding while caring for young people out of the nest, sometimes they will pluck young people and stop taking care of them. To the breeder to be attentive in his observations. At home, I prefer to remove the eggs laid on the floor to give them to another couple or to give them back to the couple after weaning when the timing allows.

    The weaning period corresponds to the period when the young bird will learn to feed itself and thus acquire its autonomy. It is therefore a delicate period where it will be important to observe the birds so as not to make the mistake of separating a youngster too early from his parents. Generally a young mandarin diamond will be weaned around 35 days of life. Once again, observation is required; and no need to take risks, it's a matter of a few days.

    The young chicks were fed by their parents who regurgitated the seeds and / or the mash that is distributed daily at this time. Now they have to learn how to shell the seeds and eat them alone. The faster the chicks will be autonomous, the sooner they will be weaned.
    The parents reduce the regurgitation of the mash by themselves.
    But if young people feel the need they will go for it alone is easy access food that will serve as a transition. In addition, some breeders offer germinated seeds to young birds: These "soft" seeds are easy to dissect and to ingest. For my part, right out of the nest, the birds have permanent provision of millet cluster (red and yellow that I alternate each day).

    For the very first days you can facilitate the access of young people to the food by using small cups not too high, lids jars, small plate, ramekin placed in the bottom of the cage. Some breeders (of which I am a part) do not change anything and keep the traditional feeders in place without observing any particular problems.

    During the period of weaning, parents will continue to feed the young, but less and less often. Be careful before separating young people from parents, to ensure that they eat well alone because a young kidnapped prematurely may be unwelcome if you put it with his parents, especially if they have started a spawn.
    When you remove your young, it may be wise to place them in an aviary with other young people already weaned, or an old male, an old female so that they finish learning to feed themselves. Finally, some young people are later than others, so be careful.
    At home for lack of room for the construction of aviaries, I use large cages 1m20 for weaning young is just as effective provided to put about fifteen young cages. For food, always millet for a couple of days at least, and the "millet" (the millet that falls clusters that I recover from a local producer). For years I gave the young weaned pate but it was a mistake because some young people prefer this food easy to eat and the stop of the pie worried some).

    During this same period, the bill of the young is colored and its adult plumage is put in place. The beak clears from the base to the tip to become pink, then will be colored coral red for males and pinkish red for females.
    The characteristic plumage of the males appears (blanks, cheeks, throat, breastplate and chest bar). Some very intensive birds in color already have the drawings right out of the nest :

    Le sevrage des jeunes diamants mandarins 2

    By the third month of their lives young people have their final plumage.

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  • Black breast chest orange gray

    Le diamant mandarin gris popn 1

    The objective of this article is not to impose a management of breeding or to create a polemic, but to share my experience of the breeding, my observations as well as the difficulties that I meet since fifteen years of breeding this combination of mutations.

    The black breast is a drawing mutation due to a different distribution of eumelanime in the plumage of the bird. The orange breast mutation is a color mutation: The eumelanin of the drawings is transformed into orange-brown phaeomelanin, which pulls towards the red-rust color for the best subjects. It does not seem to me intrusive to specify in detail in what what each mutation we know already, modifies the mutated bird.

    The ideal competition male, in addition to a correct shape and size as a classic, must not have a black rejection in the chest, must have a parotid zone (the lore: between the beak and the cheek) white, a chest rising as high as possible under the beak, a strong extension of the cheeks (the cheeks meet at the back of the skull) without flow on the back (which for me represents a non-selection of the extension of the color), a gray back and not loaded with brown veil as is often the case, drawings on primary and secondary remiges (white + orange), a red / rust color as intensive as possible, a drawing of belly (orange sparks) the largest possible. To this must be added that the blank drawings must be marked with white ovals on an orange background; the drawings of the tail tiles are of course elongated.
    The female and the male must be gray of back, shape and size correct, have a drawing of belly (the sparks) (to note that this drawing is not orange like on the males but draws rather towards the gray-brown ), back drawings (on the outer edge of the flight feathers), a chest that goes up very high, orange cheek drawings, marked blanks of dots and also orange. Should the female have cheeks and flanks as dark red as possible? I have no response. What is certain is that the first female PO had no orange cheeks and that the Dutch standard required cheekless females only a few years ago (now there are two standards accepted and judged differently: with drawing and without drawings ...: Type 1, type 2 in competitions). The female without drawn cheeks keeps tails of tails as orange as possible. Most of my breeding females do not have cheeks, it's a character I do not specifically select. I sometimes read on the internet that to get a good intensive male in color it is absolutely necessary a female with very orange cheeks, it is not true. We come out very good birds in color with females without cheeks if they are very gray. I mean by "very gray" birds whose eumelanin takes precedence over the phaeo. This does not mean that some characters should not be present (belly drawing, caudal susts, eyelids etc.). I can say that the female without cheek does not influence the intensity of the color on the males).

    Le diamant mandarin gris popn 2

    Some peculiarities are peculiar to the mutation combination. The orange breast seems to intensify the extension of the orange color of the drawings. There are often subjects with a complete extension of the cheeks behind the skull, and this with a chest that rises very high under the beak (compared to a pure black breast). This extension, when important, tends to color the lore. I do not agree with those who say that orange-lined birds are black-faced birds. This color appears as well on popn from popn without black face for several generations.
    I do not select the orange color of the lore. Certainly it is a defect present in my birds but raising black face, I do not pay attention. In the competitions it depends a lot on the judges but in general, if the bird is good, they are not heavily penalized. Note that there are several kinds of orange lores, a photo does not show well. Orange lores rust like the chest and come to blend with the cheek (not good) or an orange veil, lighter than the cheek and still stands (it's better). But on big competitions, it is what will miss the beautiful bird to be classified in front of the best ones.

    Le diamant mandarin gris popn 3

    I do not know if this extention of color is responsible for the orange back in some males, but whereas for three years I pay attention to the demarcation head-back in my selection of breeders, I noticed that I did not leave of "orange backs" while it happened 7-8 times before.

    Another peculiarity of the combination of mutation, the drawing of the belly. This drawing is characterized by orange sparks from the chest, which sometimes go down to the cloaca. I remember participating in the discussion of the French standard when it was re-read a few years ago. Those who wrote it did not want to make this character obligatory (because difficult to obtain? ...). However, it must be taken into account because it can influence the selection of breeders in the wrong direction.

    Here is a non-exhaustive list of the difficulties encountered in raising POPN:

    - The combination is "fashionable". Many novice breeders choose this color because it is sought after and this "sells" better than a classic gray. This causes a multitude of birds of very poor quality because little worked. People looking for popn birds want finished birds and do not often have a classic strain helpful to the work of the mutation suit. By only making popn X popn (with or without black-face) couplings, the quality of the birds tends to decrease as the generations go by. Another problem is the difficulty of recognizing mutated birds for an untrained eye. Many intermediate birds come out and can put the breeder, sometimes the judge, in doubt. A good PN carrier PO for example and vice versa can appear as a popn. In females it's worse; it is sometimes difficult to recognize a good carrier in po bad popn.

    - The gray popn is very different from the brown popn and is more difficult to make, which is understandable with regard to the gray eumelanin in the gray ones. In the selection of the intensity of color, we come out a lot of birds with black discharges in the chest. They are often birds whose rust color is very good and whose back color is gray. Attention, they are very good working birds which, if they are well mated, will give very good birds of competition. Many breeders use popn browns to remove these discards. I agree with that when it is done sparingly. Browns in each generation give in my opinion gray with too creamy belly, back too veiled brown. In my breeding, I use brown females popn sometimes but I try never to put gray brown bearer on brown females. That's why I do not go out of pop brown males. Same goes on classic, I only use gray. I read on a site that it was not necessary to mate gray on brown because the gray would be too veiled of brown, and the brown ones would be too dull. This is true only in the long run. You can get beautiful gray with a mating with a brown female, and beautiful, very hot females with a brown mating or brown X-gray mating.

    - Many popn encounters are small. I do not know if it is due to a bad selection or successive mating mutated X mutations. Without going back on classics, I do not think it's possible to improve the size of these birds.

    Le diamant mandarin gris popn 4

    Gray female carrier POPN (Black chest orange chest)

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  • breeding management and traceability on Excel file

    Here is a handy and complete file to download to manage and follow your zebra finch breeding.

    It is suitable for 16 breeding cages. It will be up to you to modify it according to your breeding and your knowledge of Excel software.
    It will take time to build your database of your mandarin diamonds. This breeding management file will serve you well, for example to follow the evolution of your broods, births etc. Through an overall visual with color codes to give you a real-time situation.
    It can also serve you as a historical record to observe the evolution of your breeding.

    Example of monitoring during rearing :

    Exemple suivi d elevage 1

    This file contains many automatisms (formulas, predefined list, automatic dates, conditional formatting, macros, etc.). You will have to discover it and apprehend it at the beginning of its use. Each sheet is printable.

    Important tips :

    - Activate macros to take full advantage of the file.
    - Make a regular backup of your file on a different medium than your PC (USB keys for example).

    Download the file, document in French :  Elevage diamant mandarin 2018  


    Manual


    1. Dashboard

    Mode d emploi 1 tableau de bord

    2. Calendar 2018

    Mode d emploi 2 calendrier 2018

    3. Diet

    Mode d emploi 3 calendrier alimentaire

    4. Contacts

    Mode d emploi 4 contacts

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  • Genetics of the zebra finch : Instructions for use

    1. Introduction

    The raising and presentation of zebra finch has grown considerably over the past fifteen years. To improve the size of the new mutations, breeders have also resorted to the classic "carrier" birds.
    Some manage to combine several mutations. All this made it essential to know a minimum of applied genetics. This is the minimum that I would like to introduce to new breeders.
    It is not a complete course of genetics, but the simple presentation of the method I use preceded by some basic concepts.

    2. The zebra finch and its mutations

    A zebra finch has a number of visible characters (size, shape, pattern, color, sex) that make up its phenotype. It may have, in addition to other characters not expressed (it is said that it is a carrier). The whole of the characters, expressed or not, is called the genotype.

    A young zebra finch comes from an egg cell, the result of the fusion of the nucleus of a spermatozoon of the father and the nucleus of the ovum of the female. The genetic program of the bird is already there: A sequence of cell divisions and coded information will trigger (or not) the appearance of the characters. The coded information is carried by genes located on long filaments contained in the nucleus: Chromosomes.
    All chromosomes go in pairs: each chromosome has its counterpart.

    There are two categories of chromosomes :

    - The sex chromosomes:
    • XX in the male
    • XY in the female

    - The chromosomes autosomes.

    The gray zebra finch living in Australia is the origin of all our zebra-reared finch. It has a whole set of genes distributed in its chromosomes.
    Whenever a new mutation has appeared, it is because there has been a modification of a gene of origin (and that it has proved to be hereditary). The gene of origin and the mutated gene are located at the same location called locus on each of the homologous chromosomes.
    Both genes are alleles.

    Genetique du diamant mandarin 1

    A bird is pure (homozygous) when all its alleles carry identical information.
    A bird is heterozygous when at least one pair of alleles carries different information about the same trait.

    There are currently about twenty different mutations of gray zebra finch.

    We distinguish :

    a) The dominant mutations

    Pastel, crested, cheeks (gray, brown), black face (black-face), cheeks clear.
    A mutation is dominant when it is expressed while the mutated gene exists in only one copy. This gene is located on an autosome chromosome.
    There are therefore no zebra finch carrying these mutations.
    Note: When the two homologous chromosomes each carry a dominant gene, the young is not viable. This is called a lethal factor.

    b) Recessive mutations

    White, variegated, saddled, white breast, black breast, orange breast, black cheeks, isabelle, agate, yellow beak, eumo.
    A mutation is recessive when it is expressed only if the two autosome chromosomes each have the mutated gene.
    If there is only one mutated gene, the character is not expressed. The bird is simply "carrier" of the mutation.

    c) Gender mutations

    Brown, pale back, masked old type, masked new type.
    A mutation is linked to sex when the genes responsible for this mutation are located on the X chromosome (s) of the bird (the Y chromosome of the female being empty of genes).

    The mutation is expressed in females since they receive from their father the mutated X chromosome. For it to be expressed in males, the mutated gene must be carried by each of the two X chromosomes. Otherwise, the male is only the carrier of the mutation; however, he can pass it on to half of his daughters.
    Notes: The "Light Back" and "Masked" genes are alleles of the same non-mutated gene. A Gray male may carry Pale Back and Masked.

    Genetique du diamant mandarin 2

    A pale-backed male can be a masked bearer, but not the other way around. In this case, even in a single copy, it is he who expresses himself.
    The same factor (Pale Back) can be recessive compared to Gray, but dominant over Masked.
    The gene "Brown" also located on an X chromosome does not have the same locus as the previous genes.

    Genetique du diamant mandarin 3

    Anterior to the other two, it is on a different chromosome.
    For these genes to be linked (Pale Brown Back, Brown Masked), it took the appearance of a phenomenon that is the subject of another article: Crossing-over.

    d) Combined mutations

    Many mutations as well as gray can be combined with each other. One can theoretically associate a lot but in practice, it is better to remain cautious: In addition to the many necessary crossings, it is necessary that the bird obtained remains typed and corresponds to the criteria of the standards.

    The most famous are :

    • Brown pastel
    • Gray or Brown cheeks
    • Isabelle Black Chest

    Black Brown Black Breast or Brown White Brown Pastel combine, for example, a sex-linked mutation, a dominant free mutation and a free recessive mutation.
    It is therefore necessary to know how to choose the best crossings to achieve this.

    3. Crossing technique

     a) Assign each mutation a symbol

    We begin by assigning each mutation a symbol: By analogy with the atomic symbols, we can choose one or two letters of the name of the mutation.
    The dominant mutations are in upper case, the others in lower case.

    Personally, I use the following symbols (From French abbreviations of mutations) :

      Fn: Black face
      bj: Yellow beak
      bl: White
      po: Orange Breast
      br: Brown
      Pl: Pastel
      pa: variegated
      pb: white chest
      pn: black breast
      J: Cheeks (Gray or Brown)
      jn: Black cheeks
      ag: Agate
      dp: Pale Back
      ma: Masked Old type
      mn: Hidden new type
      eu: Eumo
      se: Sellé

    Scientists have a + sign followed by the symbol of the unmutated gene.
    Example: H (Huppe); H + (not Crested); pb (White breast); pb + (no white breast).

    Personally, I find it more logical to write: H + (Huppé); H- (not Crested); pb + (White breast); pb- (no white breast).
    In the end, the results will be the same.

    b) Write the genetic formula of each bird

    On either side of a fraction bar, symbols of the genes carried by each homologous chromosome are transferred, starting with the sex chromosomes.
    Examples:

    c) Sex chromosomes

    Gray male: XN / XN; Gray female XN / Y
    In this case, N means Normal

    d) Gender mutation

    Brown male: Xbr + / Xbr +; Brown female: Xbr + / Y
    Same formulas with dp +, my +, mn +.

    e) dominant free mutation

    Male pastel gray: XN / XN PL + / pl-; Gray pastel female: XN / Y pl- / PL +
    Same formulas with H +, BF +, J +.
    Non-mutated recessive factors are written in lower case.

    f) Free recessive mutation

    Black-chest male XN / XN pn + / pn +; Black breasted gray female XN / Y pn + / pn +
    Same formulas with pb +, po +, jn +, pa +, se +, is +, and so on.

    g) Combined mutations

    Brown male black face black cheeks: XN br + / XN br + Fn + / fn- jn + / jn +
    Male pastel pale yellow pastel: XN dp + / XN dp + Pl + / pl- bj + / bj +

    h) Carriers

    Gray male / (/ means carrier) Pale back: XN dp + / XN dp-
    Female Brown / Black cheeks: XN br + / Y jn + / jn-
    Gray female black face / black breast: XN / Y Fn + / fn- pn + / pn-
    Gray male black face / black breast: XN / Y Fn + / fn- pn + / pn-
    Male pale back gray / Masked NT (new type): Xdp + / Xmn +. In this case, one could write DP +, since the Pale Back dominates its allele, the NT Mask.

    4. Place these formulas in a cross table

    We must first remember:

    • That each parent transmits to his or her young only one of the two chromosomes of each pair.
    • That the grouping in each gamete (spermatozoon or ovum) of these chromosomes is by chance: it is the genetic mixing.

    The more the parent has mutated genes on different chromosomes, the more combinations will be possible. This is the only difficulty in this method, but it is inevitable.

    Let's start with a simple crossover :

    a) Brown male: (XN br + / XN br +) X Female gray XN br- / Y

      XN br+ XN br+
    XN br- XN br+/XN br- XN br+/XN br-
    Y XN br+/Y XN br+/Y


    Each chromosome of the male (in this case, the sex chromosomes) finds its homologous chromosome provided by the female. It only remains to translate each formula.

    Results : XN br + / XN br- Male gray / brown (50%); XN br + / Y Brown female (50%)

    b) Male gray / brown: (XN br + / XN br-) X Brown female: XNbr + / Y

      XN br+ XN br-
    XN br+ XN br+/XN br+ XN br-/XN br+
    Y XN br+/Y XN br+/Y


    Results : XN br + / XN br + Brown male (25%); XN br- / XN br + (25%); XN br + / Y Brown female (25%); XN br- / Y Gray female (25%).

    Once the method is acquired, it is possible to find the result of any cross. It takes time, logic and patience (or a computer).

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  • Crossing-over

    It is in 1960 that appeared in Belgium the first Dos Pâles Bruns.
    Let's try to understand how such a combination of colors could be born.

    Brown and pale-back sex-related factors are known to be located on different X chromosomes and at different locations (loci): (1) and (2).
    They are therefore not normally linked (otherwise all the browns would be pale as well: which is not the case).
    How could they be linked on the same chromosome? (3)


    L enjambement image 1

    When a brown male is paired with a pale gray - backed female (or vice versa), gray males with brown and pale backs are obtained each time. Each male therefore has two different X chromosomes: one carries the genes "brown" "not pale back", the other carries the genes "not brown" and "pale back". Being recessive, none of these genes can express themselves since it is in a single copy; being non-alleles, none can dominate the other; it is therefore a natural gray color that expresses itself.

    How will these genes be transmitted by the male to his offspring ? To understand it well, some explanations are necessary.


    Chromosomes are very long molecules (2 millionths of a millimeter thick, 5 cm of average length in humans) entangled, in normal times, with each other in the nucleus of the cell. At the time of meiosis (cell division allowing, in males, the formation of spermatozoa from the mother cells of the testes), these chromosomes split into two exactly identical chromatids attached to each other by a centromere.
    Each chromatid then spirals. It is only then that the chromosome becomes visible under an optical microscope. The chromosomes cluster together and pair with each other in pairs.

    During this phase, two chromatids of the two contiguous chromosomes can cross, break and then be joined together by exchanging more or less important segments. This is the so-called crossing-over phenomenon.
    The "brown" gene could thus be linked to the "pale back" gene on the same X chromosome. A gray male with brown backs and pale backs can (but only in this way) produce pale gray, gray, brown backs and pale brown backs. (12.5% of each).

    With this spanning, this same male could have also :

    • Crossed with a pale-backed female: 12.5% pale gray-backed male with brown.
    • Crossed with a brown female: 12.5% brown male with pale back.

    By coupling one or the other of these with their sister "pale brown back", it is possible to obtain (in 3rd generation): 25% of pale brown backs and 25% of pale brown backs.


    L enjambement image 2

    CHROMATID

    A : Normal
    B : Contracted spiral
    C : Schematized


    L enjambement image 3

    L enjambement image 4

    We do not know if this is how the mutation actually appeared but the hypothesis seems likely. The brown masked that appeared at the same time in Great Britain may have had the same origin (a crossing between the chromosomes of a gray-backed gray-backed male with brown and brown can give females masked brown).

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  • Banding his zebra finch

    1. Interests in ringing your zebra finch

    This will allow you to know their year of birth and identify them, which will be essential to establish a genealogy and monitoring of your breeding. Each ring will be the identity card of each of your zebra finch.

    In addition, if you want to compete with one of your zebra finch, only those who are banded can participate. Ringed zebra finch of the current and previous year may qualify for a rally.

    Then, a breeder will always prefer to buy a ringed zebra finch on which he can be assured of the year of birth of this one and be informed of its origin.

    2. How and when to pack chicks

    Video that illustrates how to manipulate the chick to ring him:
     

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  • How to create a strain according to its objectives

    1. Set your goals

    First of all, I think it is necessary to target and define its objectives : Choice of mutations to select, study of the characteristics of or mutation(s) chosen, knowledge of the type of genetic transmission, create a network of breeder succeptible to work on similar goals to have topics of departures. Breeders will have to trust your project and your insight. They will also be concerned about the future of their ceded birds.
    Conditions sinequanone to then begin the construction of a strain and begin a selection to tend towards your objects defined as any project.

    Finally, define your idea of the bird you want to get. Not to mention the characteristics of the mutation or combination in which you project yourself.

    2. Tips for getting started

    Choose the starting zebra finch with as few defects as possible. Make sure you do not start with birds with an uncertain genotype.
    Example: If you have a project to build a strain of gray, check if they would not carry a mutation to hereditary recessive (as black breast, black cheeks).

    Question the breeder giving you your first specimens, asked to see the parents to be better fixed. Observe the different qualities and points of improvement of each one with the zebra finch that you want to achieve.
    Observe the harmony and all the birds of the breeder, a homogeneity will make you appear a good job of the breeder.

    3. What is a stump

    It is necessary to represent the stump of a tree, its trunk and its branches. Composed of ancestors, descendants, sisters, brothers, etc. Different methods exist depending on the type of genetic transfer of the mutation or combination raised to advance a strain.

    4. Importance of zebra finch known as "Work"

    In a strain there will be zebra finch called "work": Intensive, most typed, short, long .. These working birds will have more often and in particular one or more strengths.
    It is they who will allow you to reach your goals, do not neglect them.

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  • General requirements of the standard (Author : Marcel DUVIVIER)

    Cut :

    From the tip of the bill to the end of the tail: 11.5 cm.

    Type :

    Strong impression - Short and stubby size - Round head - Packed neck - Chest relatively wide and round.
    The head, neck, back and tail should form a single line with a minimal hollow in the neck and at the intersection of the tail at the rump.
    The curve formed by the rounded chest and the belly line should be regular from the throat to the anal area.
    The dorsal line can not be crushed and the ventral line can not fall.
    All parts of the body must be in harmony with each other.

    Head :

    Good round view on all angles - relatively wide front view - Must be in perfect harmony with the beak and body - Eyes placed about the center of the head, alive and dark colors unless the standard of the specified variety does not give it otherwise.

    Beak :

    Short, relatively heavy and conical - Well implanted in relation to the rest of the head - Mandibles overlapping perfectly and of the same length. Mandibles crossed or too long are to penalize.
    The bill can not be chipped or spotted.
    In the male, it is coral red while in the female, it is red orange unless the standard of the variety specified does not otherwise describe it.

    Bearing :

    On the perch, half sitting without the belly feathers touching the perch, the legs being slightly bent.
    The upper body slightly upright, the tail roughly in line with the line of the back. A falling tail will always be penalized. The wings tight to the body, touching the root of the tail without crossing or straightening. It is necessary to maintain a claim in a conformal cage, the bird being as little as possible in the bottom of the cage and also not attached to the bars.

    Paws :

    Red orange unless the standard of the variety specified does not otherwise describe.
    The legs, fingers and nails must be well formed, not damaged or spotted and without scales.

    Condition :

    In perfect health, without deformations nor other infirmities.
    Plumage very smooth, undamaged and complete. Sick, deformed or crippled birds do not have their places at exhibitions.

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